1. The emergence of despotism in the Sargonid State
2. The despotism of Gudea
3. The despotism of the third Dynasty of Ur
Ancient Eastern despotism as a specific form of monarchy was formed over time, gradually overcoming the traditions of tribal democracy. Early forms of primitive monarchy gradually developed into one or another kind of ancient Eastern despotism. An important feature of the ancient Eastern despotism was the special position of the head of state - the ruler - despot. The king was considered not only the bearer of all the fullness of power: legislative, executive, judicial, but at the same time recognized as a superman, a protege of the gods, their descendant or even one of the gods. The deification of the personality of the despot king is an important feature of ancient Eastern despotism. The essence of ancient Eastern despotism, like any other form of state, is to suppress the resistance of the exploited and to maintain public order. However, the specifics of the ancient Eastern state consisted in the fact that it acted as the supreme organizer of the artificial irrigation system necessary for normal economic life in the country. The active intervention of the state in the economic life of the country led to the emergence of a large administration, organized according to the bureaucratic principle: division into ranks, subordination, social status depending on the place on the official ladder. The Babylonian state acquired certain features of the ancient Eastern despotism. At the head of the state was the king, who had legislative, executive, judicial and religious power and directed various branches of government with the help of many officials.
1. The entire administration of the country was centralized. A judicial department was formed. A prominent place in it was occupied by the royal court, which concentrated in its hands the main judicial functions and noticeably pushed the temple court, the community court, the court of the quarter in the city, but they still retained some rights to decide family and criminal cases committed on their territory. The judges were united in collegiums, and the heralds, messengers, and scribes who made up the judicial staff were also subordinate to them.
2. The Finance and Taxation Department was engaged in collecting taxes that were collected in silver and in kind from crops, livestock, and handicraft products.
3. Royal power rested on the army, formed from units of heavy and light armed soldiers – redum and baerum. Their rights and obligations were defined in 16 articles of the laws of Hammurabi. Soldiers received from the state for their service inalienable land plots, sometimes with a garden, cattle and a house. Laws protected soldiers from the arbitrariness of commanders, provided for their redemption from captivity, providing for the warrior's family. The soldier was obliged to perform regular service, for evading which he could be executed. A huge bureaucratic apparatus, whose activities were strictly controlled by the tsar, carried out all his orders. At the same time, representatives of the tsarist administration had close contact with local authorities: community councils and community elders who exercised some administrative, financial and judicial power on the ground. Graft, bribery, indiscipline and laziness were severely fought in the administrative apparatus.
The purpose of this work is – consider the formation of Eastern despotism (on the example of the states of Ancient Mesopotamia).
Tasks: to consider despotisms in various states of ancient Mesopotamia.
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