1. The genesis of Russian symbolism
2. Painting and architecture of the "silver" age in Russia
3. Poetry of the "silver" age
Control work|Cultural studies
Year: 2008 | Pages: 26
1. The genesis of Russian symbolism
2. Painting and architecture of the "silver" age in Russia
3. Poetry of the "silver" age
The theme of this work is the Culture of the Silver Age in Russia.
Highlighting the most important priorities in the development of Russian culture of the late XIX-early XX century, it is impossible to ignore its most important characteristics. Russian Russian Russian cultural history usually refers to the end of the XIX – beginning of the XX century as the Russian Renaissance or, in comparison with the golden age of Pushkin, the silver age of Russian culture.
Russian Russian culture is associated with the rise in all spheres of the spiritual life of Russian society: hence the term "spiritual renaissance". Revival of the best traditions of Russian culture in the widest range: from science, philosophical thought, literature, painting, music and ending with the art of theater, architecture, decorative and applied arts.
The unique culture of the silver age due to "borderline" situation in Russia, which emerged at that time in Russia with the conflict of the ages, who was represented by the sunset of the European civilization (O. Spengler "the decline of Europe," N.Berdyaev a "Crisis of art"), the crisis of the Christian consciousness, on the other – the beginning of newness of life and art, it is possible to achieve unprecedented achievements. And all this is burdened with eschatological moods of expectation of the end of the XIX – beginning of the new XX century-as the end of the world, as the inevitable catastrophe of a civilization that has exhausted itself.
But it is precisely because of these moods that the culture of the "Silver Age" is extremely dramatic, revealing and unique.
The silver age of Russian culture seeks to synthesize all the achievements of culture: art-philosophy, religion - everything is interconnected-there are tendencies to interpenetrate different types of not only artistic, but also spiritual activities in general. Globalization of history, globalization of culture – these are the main characteristics of the culture of the Silver Age.
The aim of the work is to analyze the culture of the Silver Age in Russia.
To achieve this goal, you need to solve the following tasks::
1) analyze the genesis of Russian symbolism;
2) consider the trends of painting and architecture of the "silver" age in Russia;
3) study the poetry of the "silver" age.
1. The genesis of Russian symbolism
The genesis of symbolism in different Western European countries is different. If French symbolism is born in a polemic with naturalism in art (Zola et al.); English symbolism is based on philosophical positivism, rationalism, materialism and pragmatism in life; German symbolism is based on the combination of naturalism with impressionism, supplemented by philosophical idealism and irrationalism; Italian symbolism is born in the struggle with national classicism.
Russian symbolism is characterized primarily by a separation from the traditions of the revolutionary-democratic "sixties" and populism, with atheism, ideologization, and utilitarianism.
The separation of socio-political motives resulted in the separation of cultural character. It led to the fact that within the framework of the classics, the new things that the new historical and socio-political era dictated did not fit. Along with symbolism, which represented a new form of Romanticism, there are such trends as acmeism and Futurism in literature, cubism and abstractionism in painting.
Along with realism, which is infinitely dominant in the art of the late XIX - early XX century, symbolism becomes one of the leading worldviews in the culture of the late XIX-early XX-x centuries.
Russian symbolism emerged at the turn of the 80-90s of the XIX century and realized itself as a leading ideological, artistic, religious and philosophical trend. He absorbed all the achievements of culture of the turn of the century, and therefore largely determined the largest philosophical, artistic, and also indirectly scientific and socio – political achievements of the Silver age, including the artistic avant-garde, Russian religious philosophy, such as Russian cosmism. Symbolism in Russia claimed to perform universal, ideological functions in the social and cultural life of Russia (in contrast to French, German or Scandinavian symbolism, which remained literary and artistic phenomena).
The idea of synthesizing art, philosophy, and life, creating a "holistic style", became the apotheosis of Russian symbolism. It was this quality that distinguished it from other national types of symbolism. Russian Russian symbolism, unlike Western European symbolism, which evolved in the 20s into expressionism, surrealism, etc., formed the basis for post – symbolist phenomena of Russian culture, such as the avant-garde, acmeism, turned into neoclassicism and futurism, which became one of the most important trends of revolutionary culture in conjunction with typologically similar phenomena-imagism and constructivism. Ideologists of symbolism such as: Vyacheslav Ivanov, Andrey Bely, Valery Bryusov, Vyacheslav Khodasevich proclaimed.
Symbolism is a kind of philosopher's stone, a kind of magic key with which you can open the world and transform it. The whole history of symbolism, as V. Khodasevich wrote, represented: "a series of attempts to find a fusion of life and creativity, a kind of philosophical stone of art." Hence the syncretism of the culture of the Silver Age as a dominant principle on which all the cultural figures of the Silver Age based their activities: philosophers, artists, poets, writers, musicians, architects, theater figures.
The Silver Age strives for a new organicity-hence its unlimited desire for magical art, a certain sacredness, a purifying and transforming reality. These maxims on the subject of art were very peculiarly blended into judgments on politics: "Only then will political freedom be realized," Vyach believes. Ivanov – when the choral voice of such communities will be a genuine referendum of the people's will."
The symbolic principle was the main determining content of the world and even more real than its concrete manifestation in social reality. In certain specific artistic, moral, political, religious, and other forms. Hence the confession of Vyacheslav Ivanov's motto: movement, aspiration, breakthrough- "from the real to the more real".
For Russian symbolism, the phenomenon of theurgy was characteristic – the creative realization of the divine principle by a person, or likening himself to God the Creator. Therefore, the creative orientation and realization of the individual (in any field of activity – philosophy, art, science, etc.) come to the fore. This implies the most important feature of Russian symbolism – not knowledge of the world, but its transformation, not contemplation, but "life-building".
The concept of art expands to human activity in general, including everything: non-canonical religion, revolution, love," smart fun "of the people, etc. symbolism in this case was largely based on Dostoevsky's position" beauty will save the world", which was taken by V. Solovyov as the metaphysical basis of his concept of unity. It was the philosophy of the unity of V. Solovyov and his poetic work that became the foundation of Russian symbolism. The influence of Western European symbolism (F. Nietzsche, R. Wagner, G. Rickert, G. Russian Russian Slavophiles and Narodniks, the ideas of early Christianity, ancient culture, philology, etc.) are refracted in Russian symbolism through the philosophy of Vl. Solovyov. The ideas of collectivism and sobornost are in a peculiar way connected with the ideas of creative individuality, with the concept of national selectness, with the messianism of Russian culture. The focus on the creative personality and the phenomenon of theurgy as the realization of the divine principle in man led to a certain cult of personality (a roll call with the Renaissance). A certain code of creative personality was formed, which is Vjach. Ivanov dubbed it "the precepts of symbolism".
The identity of the artist-poet refers to as a "carrier of inner speech, on the world soul, oznamenovalsya intimate connection that exists, teinowitz and tinospora life." He is a kind of "transformer" and "translator" of the music of the celestial cosmic spheres, which is available to him and not available to ordinary mortals. It is the artist who, with the help of poetry, music, painting, brings this "encrypted information" to ordinary mortals through creative revelations, which are: a poem, a symphony, a painting, etc.
A distinctive feature of symbolism as an artistic creative process is the parallelism of the actual real and the inner higher reality (realiora), which is certainly higher than ordinary reality, since it is enriched with this higher inner meaning. Confirmation of this doctrine, which was to be carried out by the artist's personality, was the activity of artists united under the romantic name "World of Art". The very name of this artistic direction in the Russian culture of the Silver Age emphasized the priority of art over life, as opposed to realist artists, for whom art was only a weak reflection of life. Here art is the ultimate truth, a revelation sent down by the chosen artist-the priests of art.
The World of Art Association was established in 1848 and lasted until 1924. The magazine of the same name was published in 1899-1904, which included outstanding artists of that time: M. Vrubel, V. Serov, K. Korovin, A. Benois, L. Bakst, V. Borisov-Musatov, etc. As part of the" World of Art "in 1906, S. Diaghilev organized an exhibition in St. Petersburg under the same name, and then in Paris in the Autumn Salon "World of Art" as part of his own team and writers. The literary department of the magazine "world of art" was headed by D. Filosofov, who attracted such writers and philosophers as D. Merezhkovsky, N. Minsky, V. Rozanov, Lev Shestov. This also included famous poets: Vyach. Ivanov, A. Bely, A. Blok, M. Kuzmin, F. Sologub, V. Bryusov, K. Balmont.
The members interacted with leaders of music and theatre - Stanislavsky, Stravinsky, Fomin. Thus, we see that the "World of Art" represented a broad trend in art, and embodied the principle of universalism.
The world of art was at the very center of the cultural life of Russia at the turn of the century, restoring the connection of different generations of cultural figures representing different spheres of art, painting, literature, poetry, theater, music, dance, etc. They all had a passion for antiquity, Russian mythology, and folklore on the one hand, and a passion for the latest achievements of Western culture on the other.
The program of the "World of Art" contained many fundamental provisions that stemmed from the concept of symbolism. The main core of the new program was the problem of artistic individualism, the autonomy of the art world, free from social and political problems. Hence the problem of beauty, as the eternal most important theme of artistic creativity. The next important point of the program was the traditions of the national artistic culture of the XVII-early XIX century, which was to correspond to the revival of Russian art. An important point of the program was the orientation to the Western European art culture of the XIX century, including the end of the century.
The "World of Art" was particularly influenced by German romantic literature of the early 19th century, especially by Hoffmann, and in painting by the French Puvi de Chavannes, the masters of the Nabi group, impressionists like Degas, the English-Aubrey Beardsley and Charles Conder, etc.
The historicism of the art world had a romantic basis with a touch of irony. Turning to historical motives, miriskusniki chose theatrical plots, motives of folk festivals, processions, while the specifics of each type and genre acted as a mandatory condition of work. Russian Russian eighteenth century (Benoit, Lancere), Rococo with a talent for genre (Somov), French classicism of the XVII century (Benoit), Greek Archaic (Serov), Russian Empire (Somov, Lanire), Old Russian style (Bilibin, Roerich), etc. These variants are melted down into a new style, which determines the commonality of Russian Art Nouveau as a style direction in painting and graphics.
The ideal of the time is not just an artist of a universal type, but the ideal of the arts-the theater, which is able to carry out the synthesis of art to the highest degree, which is an integral feature of the culture of the "Silver Age" as a whole. The synthesis of art is carried out through play, fantasy, which directly lead to theatrical art.
Almost all the famous Russian artists of the beginning of the century worked in the theater: Vasnetsov, Vrubel, Benois, Serov, Polenov, Levitan, Korovin, Kuznetsov. Almost all miriskusniki, researchers of this period of art called the turn of the century the period of "Theatrocracy".
The role of Benoit in the theatrical activity of miriskusnikov was one of the leading ones. The artist's range is wide: from the scenery for the " Pavilion of Armida "(1907) to the grotesque embodiment of Moliere's comic plays:" The Imaginary Patient "(1912)," Tartuffe "(1912)," Forced Marriage "(1913), colorful ballet scenery for the ballet" Petrushka " by Stravinsky (1911,1917). Each time Benoit finds a specific language, different style options.
L. Bakst developed a unique style of his own in theatrical and decorative art. Favorite were the themes of the East and Antiquity. Antiquity acted as a combination of Apollonian and Dionic principles (idyll and rampage of passion).
Alexander Golovin developed his own style in theatrical scenery. In his work, the main theme is the scenery for Rimsky-Korsakov's "Pskovites" (1901) and Musorsky's "Boris Godunov" (1908).
Nicholas Roerich also made an inordinate contribution to the development of Russian theatrical art, first of all his decorations for Borodin's Prince Igor (1909) or Stravinsky's Sacred Spring(1913).
Summarizing all the above, it is necessary to determine the place of Russian symbolism in the history of national and world culture. The most important feature of Russian symbolism was the desire to develop a style of culture "in the name of freedom of creativity" and "in the name of the spirit" (Berdyaev). Thanks to this, symbolism was able to optimally realize the dream of Romantics about the synthesis of arts and stand out among other national ones. Symbolism as a cultural phenomenon is the most universal, synthetic. This fact led to its worldwide significance-up to the XX century. The appeal to ancient samples went along the way of creating a kind of "Culture Codes" that transformed modernity into eternity, a kind of revived mythology that blurs the lines between the culture of the past and the present.
Russian Russian symbolism, although sprouted on European soil, has acquired a kind of Russian features. That idea of the superman on Russian soil turned into the idea of self-affirmation of an exceptional person who put himself "on the other side of good and evil", to which everything is allowed. Moreover, "superhuman" was understood as "all-human" or, moreover,"God-human".
Russian symbolism can be considered more as a kind of endless creative process, which is self-valuable by its active side, than by a specific result, hence the process of artistic creativity, the process of philosophizing, God-seeking, etc. comes to the fore.
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