Question 3. The origin of Islam and its basic principles
Question 68. The role of Russia in the liberation of the Balkan peoples from the Ottoman yoke
Question 98. The USSR after the Great Patriotic War: Contradictions of social development
Question 3. The origin of Islam and its basic principles
Islam is a monotheistic Abrahamic religion in the world. The word "Islam" is translated as "surrender to God", "submission", "submission" (to the laws of Allah). In Sharia terminology, Islam is complete, absolute monotheism, submission to Allah, His orders and prohibitions; removal from polytheism and giving partners to Allah.
Islam originated in Arabia in the seventh century A.D. Its origin is clearer than that of Christianity and Buddhism, for it is covered almost from the very beginning by written sources. But there is also a lot of legendary stuff here. According to Muslim tradition, the founder of Islam was the prophet of God Muhammad, an Arab who lived in Mecca; he allegedly received from God a number of" revelations " recorded in the holy book of the Koran, and passed them on to people. The Koran is the main holy book of Muslims, like the Pentateuch of Moses for Jews, the Gospel for Christians.
Muhammad himself did not write anything: he was apparently illiterate. He left behind scattered records of his sayings and teachings, made at different times. Texts of both earlier and later times are attributed to Muhammad. Around the year 650 (under the third successor of Muhammad, Osman), a set of these records was made, which was called the Koran ("reading"). This book was declared sacred, dictated to the prophet himself by the Archangel Jabrayil; the records that were not included in it were destroyed.
The Quran is divided into 114 chapters (surahs). They are arranged without any order, just in size: the longer ones are closer to the beginning, the shorter ones are closer to the end. The surahs of Mecca (earlier) and Medina (later) are mixed. The same thing is repeated verbatim in different suras. Exclamations and glorifications of the greatness and power of Allah alternate with injunctions, prohibitions and threats of "hell" in the Hereafter to all disobedient people. In the Qur'an, there are no traces of such editorial and literary finishing as in the Christian Gospel: these are completely raw, raw texts.
Another part of Muslim religious literature is the sunnah (or sonnah), which consists of sacred traditions (hadiths) about the life, miracles and teachings of Muhammad. Collections of hadiths were compiled in the IX century by Muslim theologians-Bukhari, Muslim, etc. But not all Muslims recognize the Sunnah; those who recognize it are called Sunnis, and they constitute a large majority in Islam.
It can be considered established that Muhammad really lived around 570-632 and preached a new doctrine, first in Mecca, where he found few followers, then in Medina, where he managed to gather many adherents; relying on them, he subdued Mecca, and soon united most of Arabia under the banner of a new religion. Biography of Muhammad is devoid of much of science fiction (in contrast to the gospel biography of Jesus). But the origins of the Muslim religion should be sought, of course, not in the biography of individuals, but in the socio-economic and ideological conditions that developed in that era in Arabia.
Arabia was long inhabited by Semitic tribes, the ancestors of the present Arabs. Some of them settled in oases and cities, engaged in agriculture, crafts and trade, some wandered in the steppes and deserts, raising camels, horses, sheep and goats. Arabia was economically and culturally connected with neighboring countries-Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, and Ethiopia. Trade routes between these countries went through Arabia. One of the important junctions of trade roads was located in the Meccan oasis, near the Red Sea coast. The tribal nobility of the Koreish (Kureish) tribe that lived here derived many benefits from trade.
There were also settlements of foreigners in Arabia, in particular Jewish and Christian communities. People of different languages and religions communicated with each other, their beliefs influenced each other. In the fourth century, the decline of the caravan trade began in Arabia, as trade routes moved east to Sasanian Iran. This upset the economic balance that had held for centuries. Nomads who lost their income from the caravan movement began to lean towards a sedentary lifestyle, moving to agriculture. The need for land increased, and clashes between tribes intensified. The need for unification began to be felt.
Muhammad's sermons were initially met with distrust, even hostility, especially by the leaders of his own Koreish tribe. The trade nobility feared that the end of the cult of the old Arab tribal gods would undermine the importance of Mecca as a religious, and therefore economic, center. Muhammad and his followers had to flee from Mecca: this flight (hijra), committed in 622 AD, is considered by Muslims to be the beginning of a special chronology (Muslim era). In the agricultural oasis of Medina (Yathrib) Muhammad found more favorable ground for propaganda: the Medinites were rivals and enemies with the Meccan aristocracy and were happy to oppose it. Muhammad was supported by several local tribes; he even tried to rely on Jewish communities. After gaining many followers, Muhammad captured Mecca in 630. The Meccan Koreans were forced to adopt a new religion. With the unification of the Arab tribes, which one after another joined the new teaching, the importance of Mecca as a national and religious center increased even more. The Koreishite nobility, initially hostile to the Muslim movement, now recognized it as good to join it and even led the movement.
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