Control work|Sociology

Control Study of public opinion

Authorship: Infostore

Year: 2020 | Pages: 18

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Introduction
1 Sociology of public opinion as a special sociological discipline
2 Formation of public opinion. Needs, values and interests as driving forces in the process of forming public opinion
3 Public Opinion Research in the United States: Gallup, Harris Firm
Conclusion
List of sources used
As a peculiar phenomenon of spiritual life, public opinion is directly related to the material carrier, which determines the real strength of this opinion, its features and properties. At the same time, the more broad strata act as the bearer of public opinion, the greater the social authority and effectiveness it differs, the more it forces to be reckoned with. In each particular case, public opinion is rooted in certain needs and interests of people, declaring by the very fact of its existence the importance of taking them into account and satisfying them. Thus, for researchers of various directions, it is an actual study of public opinion, its state and features.

1 Sociology of public opinion as a special sociological discipline
Sociology of public opinion is a branch of sociological knowledge, the subject of which is the study of the structure, patterns, channels, mechanisms of formation and functioning of societies, opinions. Public opinion is the attitude of large social groups to actual problems of reality that are of public interest. Opinion is usually distinguished from concepts, attitudes, values, beliefs, stereotypes, and social feelings. Public opinion is less stable, easier to change, it is a measurable parameter in a mass survey or other type of research, while attitudes and values are latent variables. In contrast to public feelings, public opinion is an intellectual product, based on a certain amount of studied factual evidence and involving a certain degree of reflection, analysis and rational reflection.
The object of public opinion always has the characteristic of high discussion in society and relatively high social significance. Public opinion is formed on issues of public interest, and arises only when any public interest for objective reasons or due to subjective factors becomes the center of people's attention, acquires a high degree of actualization. The high level of discussion of the object of public opinion is due to the fact that public opinion arises in connection with the divergence of views of people on the issue of interest. Depending on the complexity of the internal structure and organization of objects of public opinion, opinions about facts, opinions about events, opinions about phenomena and processes are distinguished.
The subject of public opinion can be the entire population within a single territory (state, nation, etc.) or a specific population group. The subject of public opinion has an internal structure, the elements of which are different social groups: classes, social strata, nations, and other social communities.
The subject of the study of the sociology of public opinion is the stages and factors of the formation of public opinion, the forms of its functioning, its role in social processes. In the course of its development, public opinion passes through the stages of emergence, formation and functioning. The formation of public opinion in a broad sense is a qualitative change of opinions, the development of opinions in a certain direction under the influence of both spontaneously emerging factors and forces, and organized conscious influence. In a more narrow sense, the concept of opinion formation can be used to refer to the process of organized influence of certain social groups and forces on people in order to change their opinion. The main ways (methods) of forming public opinion: suggestion, persuasion, imitation, authority. The primary means (channels) of the formation of public opinion are mass media, oral propaganda and political agitation, interpersonal communication.
There are the following stages of public opinion formation: the emergence of individual opinions on a significant problem for them, the exchange of opinions between people, during which the significance of the problem increases, as well as the formulation of solutions and narrowing of alternatives; the crystallization of a common point of view from a variety of opinions.
1. Kiseleva O. V., Naumetova Yu. E. Formation of public opinion and ways of manipulating it for various purposes // International Journal of Experimental Education. 2017. No. 6. S. 91-95.
2. Kozina O. A., Maslennikova K. A., Khvostova Yu. A. Public opinion as a way of forming public consciousness and awareness of citizens / / Scientific research and development in the era of globalization. Ufa : OOO "Aeterna", 2016. P. 175 to 179.
3. Seyvald A. A., Salikov D. H. Methods of manipulating public consciousness through the media / / Modern problems of managing organizations, territories, and the country: a view of young people. Chelyabinsk : CSU, 2017. P. 135-140.
4. Tikhonova E. V., Bunov E. G. Sociology of public opinion. Moscow: INFRA-M, 2017. 274 p.
5. Frants V. A. Management of public opinion. Yekaterinburg: Ural Publishing House. un-ta, 2016. 135 p.
6. Cherkasov R. V. Historical aspects of the emergence and development of public opinion [Electronic resource] // Scientific Bulletin of the Omsk Academy of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/istoricheskie-aspekty-vozniknoveniya-i-razvitiya-obschestvennogo-mneniya (accessed 17.10.2020).

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