1 Theoretical analysis of the essence of social deviation of students
1.1. Characteristics of the concept of "deviant behavior", types and forms of social deviation of students
1.2. Prevention of social deviation of students
2 Research of measures of prevention of deviant behavior of students in KubSTU and their effectiveness
2.1 Prevention of deviant behavior of students in KubSTU
2.2 Effectiveness of prevention of deviant behavior of students in KubSTU
List of sources used
Course work 49 p., 17 sources.
DEVIANT BEHAVIOR, DEVIANT, SOCIAL DEVIATION, DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR, DELINQUENT, PREVENTION, STUDENT YOUTH
The object of the study is the social deviation of young students.
The purpose of the work is to study the features of social deviation of students and to consider the types of its prevention.
Research method: analysis of theoretical and empirical material, secondary data analysis, classical document analysis, questionnaires.
The novelty of the work lies in the fact that the analysis of documents on the prevention of deviant behavior of students in KubSTU was carried out, as well as the research program "Effectiveness of prevention of deviant behavior of students in KubSTU" was developed and a survey was conducted among students of KubSTU.
The practical significance lies in the fact that the work can be used for further research on the effectiveness of prevention of social deviation of young students in educational institutions.
1.1 Characteristics of the concept of "deviant behavior", types and forms of social deviation of students
In socio-psychological and pedagogical studies, various definitions are used to denote deviations (deviations) in human behavior: delinquent behavior, deviant behavior, asocial behavior, etc.As the analysis of publications shows, deviation is one of the sides of the phenomenon of variability, which is inherent in both a person and the world around him. Variability in the social sphere is always associated with activity and is expressed in human behavior, which represents its interaction with the environment, mediated by the external and internal activity of the individual. The quality of the processes of this interaction allows us to "divide" the behavior into normal and deviant.
Normal (adequate, adaptive) human behavior implies its interaction with the microsocium, which adequately meets the needs and opportunities of its development and socialization. Hence, deviant behavior can be characterized as the interaction of a person with a micro-society, which disrupts his development and socialization due to the lack of adequate consideration of the environment of the characteristics of his personality and manifests itself in behavioral opposition to established moral and legal social norms.
Other studies have noted that deviant, delinquent, and criminal behavior are distinguished within deviation.
Deviant behavior is one of the types of deviant behavior associated with the violation of age-appropriate norms and rules of behavior characteristic of microsocial relationships and small gender and age social groups. That is, this type of behavior can be called anti-disciplinary. Typical manifestations of deviant behavior are situationally determined behavioral reactions, such as: demonstration, aggression, challenge, unauthorized and systematic deviation from study or work; systematic leaving home, drunkenness and alcoholism of young people; narcosis and related antisocial actions; antisocial actions of a sexual nature; suicide attempts.
Deviant behavior is considered in a broad and narrow sense. In a broad sense, deviant behavior can be called any actions that do not correspond to the norms and social stereotypes that have developed in this society. With this approach, it is necessary to distinguish between positive and negative deviation.
Positive deviation is such a deviant behavior, which, although perceived by many as unusual, strange, but at the same time, generally does not cause disapproval. These can be heroic acts, self-sacrifice, over-devotion to something or someone, excessive zeal, an acute sense of pity or sympathy, etc.
Negative deviation, on the contrary, represents those behavioral deviations that cause most people to react with disapproval or condemnation.
In a narrow sense, deviant behavior refers to any negative and disapproved deviations from generally accepted norms. Delinquent behavior, in contrast to deviant behavior, is characterized as repeated antisocial offenses of a person, which form a certain stable stereotype of actions that violate legal norms, but do not entail criminal liability because of their limited public danger.
Despite all the relativity of the concept of "deviant behavior", it nevertheless hides quite real and various social phenomena that manifest themselves in various forms and forms.
The main forms of deviant behavior of students in modern conditions include crime, alcoholism, drug addiction, suicide. Each form of deviation has its own specifics.
Crime. Although the registered crime rate of young students is still lower than in some industrial countries, the rate of crime growth is very high. In this regard, it is necessary to take into account that crime has a threshold of quantitative and qualitative saturation, beyond which it turns from a criminological, law enforcement problem into a political problem. Crime is a reflection of the vices of humanity. And so far, no society has managed to eradicate it. At present, it is necessary to focus on the real task of reducing the growth rate and keeping crime under control at a socially tolerant level.
Alcoholism. In fact, alcohol has entered our lives, becoming an element of social traditions, a prerequisite for official ceremonies, holidays, some ways of spending time, solving personal problems. However, this situation is costly for society. According to statistics, 90% of cases of hooliganism, 90% of aggravated rapes and almost 40% of other crimes are related to intoxication. Murders, robberies, assaults, and grievous bodily harm are committed in 70% of cases by persons in a state of intoxication.
In the history of society's struggle with alcoholism, two directions can be found. First, limiting the availability of alcoholic beverages, reducing their sale and production, raising prices, and tightening punitive measures for violating prohibitions and restrictions. Secondly, efforts aimed at reducing the need for alcohol, improving social and economic conditions of life, increasing general culture and spirituality, calm, balanced information about the dangers of alcohol, the formation of non-alcoholic behavioral stereotypes in the population. The history of the fight against alcoholism has also known attempts to introduce "prohibition" on the territory of some countries (England, USA, Finland, Russia). All of them did not achieve their goal; because the presence of alcohol is not the only and not the main reason for the existence of alcoholism. The problem of overcoming drunkenness and alcoholism is the most complex, it includes economic, social, cultural, psychological, demographic, legal and medical aspects. Only taking into account all these aspects, it is possible to successfully solve it.
Drug addiction. This is a disease that is expressed in physical and (or) mental dependence on narcotic drugs, gradually leading to a deep depletion of physical and mental functions of the body. Drug addiction as a social phenomenon is characterized by the degree of prevalence of drug use or equivalent substances without medical indications, which includes both drug abuse and painful (habitual) consumption. In total, there are about 240 types of narcotic substances of plant and chemical origin. The exact number of drug abusers in our country is hardly possible to determine due to the imperfection of the social control system, but if according to some estimates in 1998 their number could be from 2 to 4% of the total population of Russia, in our time it is already much larger. The vast majority of drug addicts (up to 70%) are young people under the age of 25.
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