1 Specifics of mass social behavior and controls of this phenomenon
2 Research of crowd management and manipulation methods on Maidan 2013-2014
List of sources used
The application And the Program of sociological research
Appendix B Interview form
The degree of scientific elaboration of the problem Prigozhin A. I. In his book "Modern Sociology" touches on mass social behavior and says that " Consciousness is the highest form of reflection of the objective world, the product of the human brain. With its help, a person is able to actively and purposefully influence the world around him, transform it in accordance with his interests, the formation and implementation of which are closely related to social values: knowledge of them and the desire to implement them in his life.
Group consciousness is a set of ideas, views, ideas, feelings, moods, and expressions of will inherent in a given social group.
Mass consciousness is the base of mass actions and behavior. Mass actions can be poorly organized (panic, pogroms) or sufficiently prepared (demonstration, revolution, war). Much depends on whether the situation is realized or not, whether there are leaders who can lead the rest.»
Mokshantsev R. I., Mokshantseva A.V. in their book "Social Psychology" write that " ... Mass behavior can be such that it will cause anomie in society. Anomie - the absence of law, organization, the state of individual and social consciousness, which is characterized by the decomposition of the value system, due to the crisis of the entire society, its social institutions, the contradiction between the proclaimed goals and the impossibility of their implementation for the majority of society members.»
Representatives of the German School of Peoples ' Psychology, headed by W. Wundt, M. Lazarus and G. Steinthal, and the Franco-Italian school of G. Lebon and G. Tarda, expressed their views on mass behavior in the following words: "Mass behavior (including spontaneous) is a term of political psychology, which denotes various forms of behavior of large groups of people, crowds, the circulation of rumors, panic and other mass phenomena.
Mass behavior manifests the determinative role of mass consciousness, which is understood as a reflection of the material conditions of life, work and relationships. Mass spontaneous behavior is most often a mass reaction of people to political crisis and instability. This reaction is characterized by the predominance of irrational, instinctive feelings over conscious and pragmatic ones. The emotions of people in the mass spread according to their own laws.»
The object of the work is mass social behavior.
The subject of the work is mass behavior management.
Objective: to identify the features of mass social behavior management.
- consider ways to manage mass behavior;
- identify the main aspects in the management of mass behavior;
- analyze the features of mass behavior management.
1 Specifics of mass social behavior and elements of control of this phenomenon.
Mass behavior we will call the behavior of people that is characteristic only of mass society and has such features as disorganization, lack of structure, uncoordinated. In addition, an important feature of mass behavior should be considered an individual choice of behavior lines. If the behavior of the crowd is defined as unstable, episodic and manifests itself only in a social group, then mass behavior manifests itself and is realized as the sum of individual individual actions. In contrast to the crowd (which is people gathered in a limited physical space), the masses of people are scattered, in the mass of people there is no constant and conscious contact of one person with another.
According to this concept, the masses of people cannot perform joint destructive actions and interact like a crowd. Collective behavior in a mass society is characterized by the fact that a large number of people act individually, rather than as part of a group, but nevertheless their actions are unidirectional, capable of creating significant social changes. The exodus of refugees from the former republics of the USSR, emigration, mass demand for certain goods, mass hobbies of young people are vivid examples of mass behavior in modern society.
According to many social scientists, questions related to mass behavior are the most difficult in sociology. Indeed, it is very difficult to apply scientific methods to such obscure phenomena as crowd behavior, riot, panic, or worship of the leader. How can you imagine a sociologist interviewing a person in a raging crowd or during a panic? Each of us is limited by the possibilities of our vision of the situation and participation in events. Basically, the sociologist uses data obtained from people who are in a calm environment, free from the influence of social groups. It is even more difficult to understand the nature of collective behavior if we limit ourselves to information gleaned from newspapers, letters or other documents, where surveys of direct participants in events are extremely rare, but they can only speak about the manifestations of collective consciousness in retrospect.
The term "behavior" in science is associated with activity, a system of actions that consists in adaptation, in adaptation to the already existing environment, moreover, in animals only to the natural, and in humans - to the social. This adaptation is carried out on the basis of certain biologically or socially defined programs, the initial foundations of which are not subject to revision or restructuring.
A typical example of social behavior is, say, adaptation, adaptation to the surrounding social environment by following the customs, rules and norms accepted in this environment. Adaptive behavior is a "closed" system of attitude to reality, the limits of which are limited to a given social or natural environment and a given " set of possible actions in this environment, certain life stereotypes and programs.
The form of attitude to reality inherent only in man is activity, which, unlike behavior, is not limited to adaptation to existing conditions - natural or social-but rebuilds and transforms them. Accordingly, such activities involve the ability to continuously review and improve the underlying programs. At the same time, people are not just performers of a given program of behavior - even if they are active, finding new original solutions within the framework of its implementation - but creators, creators of fundamentally new programs of action.
In the case of adaptive behavior, with all its possible activity and originality, the goals of actions are ultimately set, defined; activity is associated with the search for possible means to achieve these goals. In other words, adaptive behavior is purposeful, expedient. Freedom means overcoming the pressure of the conditions set for a person - whether it is external nature, social norms, surrounding people or internal limitations - as factors that determine his behavior, implies the ability to build his own program of actions that would allow him to go beyond the limits prescribed by the present situation, expand the horizon of his attitude to the world, fit into the broader context of being.
The interaction of the individual and society from the point of view of social control reveals its internal inconsistency. So, on the one hand, a person cannot acquire his own individuality, acquire social qualities and properties outside or outside of society. If an individual cannot be considered a product of the social and socio-cultural environment,then he cannot be considered a person. On the other hand, a person cannot acquire and develop his individuality if he blindly, automatically adapts to the patterns of culture. If a person is considered a simple cast of the socio-cultural environment, then he cannot be recognized as a person.
Individual and social actions are related as controlled and controlling. The act of social (group) action, acting in the system of social control in the form of a reaction to individual behavior, itself performs the function of a social stimulus (positive or negative), which determines the nature of subsequent individual acts, so that these acts are a reaction to social actions. These acts are fixed in the behavior or removed from it, depending on the reaction of the social environment (group, class, society as a whole).
In turn, the reaction of the social environment to individual action depends on the objectively existing (in morality, in law, in ideology, etc.) social scale of assessments, derived from the system of values, ideals, vital interests and aspirations of the social group, class, society as a whole. Individual action, entering the social world, receives its definition from outside, its essence, social meaning and significance are determined by social goals. The social assessment of individual actions is predetermined by an objectively existing set of their stereotypes included in the system of norms, values, ideals, etc.Similar, although not formalized, scales of assessments exist in morality, professional ethics, etc., forming the normative structure of the corresponding social groups.
Social management is the management of all and any social processes. Mass social behavior is one of these processes. It is natural, i.e. it is subject to the action of certain social laws and regularities, and, consequently, it is controlled. The essence of mass social behavior is that mass social behavior is a way of life and actions of a large number of people that has a significant impact on the social stability of society. To the subjects of mass social behavior is usually referred: the masses, the crowd, the public and individuals, as well as their micro associations (family, micro groups, circles of interpersonal communication). The term “masses " is used when we are dealing with people who, because of their number, or indifference, or a combination of both these factors, cannot be united in any organization based on a common interest: political parties, professional and other organizations. The masses, in this sense, exist in every country. They consist of those huge numbers of neutral, politically indifferent people who will never join any party, any social movement, and most of them do not go to the ballot box. In sociology, the term “popular masses”is most often used. The masses of the people are a sociological category that means the presence of the working majority of the population in society as a decisive force for social progress. A crowd is a contact, apparently unorganized community, characterized by a high degree of conformism (i.e., a group of people). adaptability, passive acceptance of the prevailing opinions) of its constituent individuals, acting extremely emotionally and unanimously. This concept is quantitative and visible. If the mass is inherently inert, the crowd is always active.
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