Course work|History

Course Relations between the State and the Orthodox Church during the Great Patriotic War Domestic Wars

Authorship: Infostore

Year: 2016 | Pages: 30

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Introduction
Chapter 1. Theoretical aspects of relations between the State and the Orthodox Church during the Great Patriotic War
1.1 Conditions and reasons for changing the attitude of the Soviet State to the Church
1.2 State-Church relations in different stages of the Great Patriotic War
Chapter 2. Analysis of the role and significance of the activities of the Orthodox Church during the Great Patriotic War
2.1 Assistance to the Orthodox Church at the front
2.2 The importance of the Orthodox Church in the Great Patriotic War
Conclusion
References
There is no doubt that the religious faith of the Soviet people helped to survive the war and defeat the insidious and powerful enemy, among other conditions. The national and patriotic traditions of Russian Orthodoxy, which had developed over the centuries, proved to be stronger than resentments and prejudices. Despite the outrage, pogrom and endless humiliations from the authorities, the Orthodox Church, in a difficult time for the country and the people, without any hesitation or doubt, joined the ranks of the defenders of the Fatherland, spiritually sanctified the future Victory.
The object of the study is the relationship between the government and the church.
The subject of the study is the influence of the Great Patriotic War on the relationship between the government and the church.
The purpose of the course work is to analyze the relations between the state and the Orthodox Church during the Great Patriotic War.
Tasks:
1) consider the conditions and reasons for changing the attitude of the Soviet state to the Church;
2) to reveal the state-church relations in different stages of the Great Patriotic War;
3) analyze the assistance of the Orthodox Church at the front;
4) determine the significance of the Orthodox Church in the Great Patriotic War.
The structure of the course work consists of an introduction, two chapters, a conclusion and a list of references.

2.2 The importance of the Orthodox Church in the Great Patriotic War
The Church is often called the "second power", most secular tsars perceived Orthodoxy as a tool to maintain their autocracy. The authorities tried not to spoil relations with the Orthodox Church. Representatives of the clergy had privileges and special status. Orthodoxy has always brought peace of mind and a sense of protection from above to the difficult life of the Russian peasant. The church was engaged in charity work, and children were given primary education in parochial schools. Often she stood up for the offended, one way or another, gave her assessment of political transformations, that is, she took an active position in the life of the state.
The formation of the image of the charismatic leader began after the Bolsheviks came to power. However, little was accomplished during Lenin's lifetime. In a full sense, he became a charismatic leader, almost a god after his death. "Lenin lived, Lenin is alive, Lenin will live!" - this slogan could be found both on the streets of the capital and in a small village. Than not " Christ is risen!"
The new leader, I. V. Stalin, was replaced as a loyal disciple, a loyal Leninist. His charismatization took place in the 30s. He became a god in his lifetime. His portraits hung everywhere, and monuments were erected in cities and towns. His name is called: cities, streets, schools, factories, farms, divisions, regiments, etc. The press glorified the leader. Here are the lines from the pages of the newspaper "Pravda". January 8, 1935: "Long live the one whose genius led us to unprecedented success – the great organizer of the victories of the Soviet power, the great leader, friend and teacher-our Stalin!" March 8, 1939: "Let the father live, long live our native father-Stalin-the sun!" [18]
The deification of the leaders gave "sanctity" to the regime. In the mass consciousness, this meant the adoption of new values and new life orientations. The system, which was largely based on violence, took on a spiritual basis.
It is characteristic that during the war years, the bet was made on the Russian people. Russian patriotism has become one of the most important sources of victory. Russian Russian theme was constantly addressed by I. V. Staiin, especially in the first, most difficult period of the war, on November 6, 1941. he spoke about the impossibility of defeating "... the great Russian nation, the nation of Plekhanov and Lenin, Belinsky and Chernyshevsky, Pushkin and Tolstoy, ... Suvorov and Kutuzov".
Christianity has always carried a charge of great moral strength, which was especially important during the war years. In religion they drew comfort and strength for life and work in the most difficult conditions of war. The Russian Orthodox Church called for humility and patience, for mercy and brotherhood. The war showed the best features of Russian Orthodoxy.
In 1943, he established the order of Alexander Nevsky, Alexander Suvorov, Mikhail Kutuzov, other prominent Russian generals, naval commanders, entered St. George ribbon, the returned form of the pre-revolutionary Russian army. Christianity was given more freedom than other denominations. Already on June 22, 1941. Patriarchal Locum Tenens Metropolitan Sergius made an appeal to the faithful, urging them to stand up for the Motherland with weapons in their hands, to take part in raising funds for the defense fund [6].
A number of telegrams from representatives of the Orthodox clergy with messages about the transfer of funds for the needs of defense in the first months of the war appeared on the pages of the central newspapers "Pravda "and" Izvestia", there was also information about the work of the Orthodox Church, biographies of the newly elected Patriarchs Sergius and Alexy were printed. That is, the patriotic activity of the Church was covered in the press and recognized by the authorities. Dozens of clergy were released from the camps, including 6 archbishops and 5 bishops.
On Easter 1942, Moscow allowed unimpeded traffic through the city for the whole night. In 1942, the first Council of Bishops for the entire war was assembled in Ulyanovsk. In the spring of 1943, the government opened access to the icon of the Iveron Mother of God, which was brought from the closed Donskoy Monastery for worship in the Resurrection Church in Moscow.
During the period from 1941 to 1944, the church contributed more than 200 million rubles to the national Defense Fund. In the first years of the war, more than three million rubles were collected in the churches of Moscow for the needs of the front and defense. In the temples of Leningrad collected 5.5 million rubles. The church communities of Nizhny Novgorod collected more than four million rubles for the defense fund in 1941-1942. In the first half of 1944, the Novosibirsk Diocese raised about two million rubles for wartime needs. The funds raised by the Church were used to create the Alexander Nevsky Air Squadron and the Dmitry Donskoy tank column, which included 40 T-34 tanks. The total material contribution to the defense fund amounted to 300 million rubles.
Here are some more examples. Bishop Bartholomew, Archbishop of Novosibirsk and Barnaul, encouraged people to donate to the needs of the army, performing divine services in the churches of Novosibirsk, Irkutsk, Tomsk, Krasnoyarsk, Barnaul, Tyumen, Omsk, Tobolsk, Biysk and other cities. The fees were spent on the purchase of warm clothes for the soldiers, the maintenance of hospitals and orphanages, the restoration of areas affected during the German occupation and assistance to war invalids.
Metropolitan Alexy of Leningrad remained with his flock in besieged Leningrad throughout the siege. "...the spirit of unity and inspiration that the entire Russian people now live by ignites the hearts of soldiers, " read his address to the faithful on Palm Sunday.
On September 4, 1943, Stalin met with the highest hierarchs of the Orthodox Church. It marked a warming of relations between the government and the church. The regime decided to use traditional religion to mobilize forces and resources in the fight against an external enemy. By order of I. V. Stalin, the task was set "at the Bolshevik pace" to restore the normal administration of religious rites. It was also decided to establish theological academies in Moscow, Kiev and Leningrad. Stalin agreed with the clergy on the need to issue church books. Under the Patriarch, it was decided to form a Holy Synod of three permanent and three temporary members. A decision was made to form the Council for the Affairs of the Russian Orthodox Church.
In general, it should be noted that the war had a significant and positive impact on relations between the Orthodox Church and the Soviet government. After the war, the People's Commissariat of Education issued a resolution on the preferential admission of front-line soldiers to educational institutions. In this case, the church followed the decision of the authorities, a lot of front-line soldiers were studying at the seminary at that time. For example, I. D. Pavlov, the future Archimandrite Kirill, he became the confessor of the Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Alexy II [3].
During the war, there was a popular legend that during the offensive on Moscow, an icon of the Tikhvin Mother of God was placed on the plane, the plane flew around Moscow and consecrated the borders, as in Ancient Russia, when the icon was often taken out on the battlefield so that the Lord would protect the country. Even if it was unreliable information, people believed it, which means they expected something similar from the authorities.
At the front, soldiers often made the sign of the cross before the battle-they asked the Almighty to protect them. Most perceived Orthodoxy as a national religion. The famous Marshal Zhukov before the battle, together with the soldiers, said: "Well, with God!". There is a tradition among the people that Zhukov carried the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God along the fronts.
During the" period of change " (1917-1941), the Bolsheviks abandoned the traditional Russian religion. But during the war, "time to collect stones", it was necessary to return to the native Russian, traditions helped to unite the people on the basis of a common history, a common religion. This was well understood by Hitler. One of his instructions was that the fascists should prevent the influence of one church over a large area, but the appearance of sects in the occupied territories, as a form of schism and separation, should be encouraged.
Stalin did not organize the church revival, he restrained it. In the Pskov region, before the arrival of the Germans, there were 3 churches, and by the return of the Soviet troops there were 200 of them. In the Kursk region before the Germans were 2, it became-282, but in the Tambov region, where the Soviet government stood unchanged, and there were 3 churches. Thus, the first 18 churches were allowed to open only after almost six months after Stalin's meeting with the metropolitans by the decree of the Council of Ministers of February 5, 1944. And of the total number of requests of believers to open churches received in 1944-1947, the Council of Ministers satisfied only 17%.

1. Alexievich S. The war is not a woman's face. - M., 2004. - p. 47.
2. Bolotov S. V. The Russian Orthodox Church and the international policy of the USSR in the 1930s-1950s.
3. Bulakov O. N. The Great Patriotic War in the history of my family. - Knowledge. Understanding. Skill. - 2005. - p. 56-58.
4. Gusev G. The Russian Orthodox Church and the Great Patriotic War // Nash sovremennik. - 2000. - No. 5. - pp. 212-226.
5. Demin V. N. Secrets of the Russian people. - Moscow: "Veche Publishing House", 2005. - 320 p.
6. Karatuev M. I., Frolov M. I. 1939-1945: a view from Russia and Germany. St. Petersburg: PSA "Pavel" VOGUE, 2006. 388 p.
7. Odintsov M. I. State and Church in Russia. Of the twentieth century. M., 1994.
8. The Russian Orthodox Church during the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945. Collection of documents. / Compiled by: Vasilyeva O. D., Kudryavtsev I. I., Lykova L. A. M. 2009.
9. ROC in the years of the Great Patriotic War. Moscow, 2009. p. 49.
10. Save and preserve. Eyewitness accounts of God's mercy and help to Russia in the Great Patriotic War. Author-compiler Farberov A. I.-M.: "Ark", 2010
A total of 18 sources of literature

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