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Coursework Terrorism in the modern world

Authorship: Infostore

Year: 2012 | Pages: 24

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Introduction

1. Terrorism as a socio-psychological phenomenon

2. Analysis of conceptual models of terrorism

3. Measures to counter modern terrorism

Conclusion

Bibliographic list

The objective circumstances that actualize modern terrorism as a topic of scientific research include: first, the formation of fundamentally new favorable prerequisites for the activation and growth of the scale of terrorist activities associated with the process of globalization of public relations. The process of globalization contributes to the international character of terrorism. Secondly, the attempts of international terrorism to position itself as an asymmetric response to the neo-hegemonic claims of the countries of the "golden billion" in order to legalize terrorist activities as a form of political struggle. Third, the uncertainty of the semantic content of the concept of "terrorism", the lack of its universal, legally binding definition makes it difficult to unite the efforts of States in the fight against terrorism. Fourth, the criminalization of public relations, the creation of international criminal cartels, and the growth of deviations objectively contribute to strengthening the social base of terrorism. Fifth, the devaluation of traditional values, accompanied by the growth of frustrating states of mass consciousness and the deterioration of the socio-psychological well-being of the population of most countries of the world. The right to violence, the right to be cruel, cynical is increasingly perceived by the ordinary consciousness as a necessary condition for survival in modern society. Sixth, the rapid scientific and technological development and informatization of public life create fundamentally new opportunities for terrorist influence on the activities of political institutions. Many experts share the view that nuclear terrorism is a disaster waiting to happen. Previously, such a danger was considered extremely unlikely and was not taken into account. Seventh, the growing infrastructural vulnerability of society to terrorist attacks, associated with an increase in the risks of man-made disasters, environmental disasters, as well as the process of urbanization. As a result, political terrorism has transformed into a systemic threat to many States, and in the future, to the world community as a whole. The conditions for its reproduction and the potential for terrorist activities to influence political decision-making and the course of social development have changed significantly. Today we are dealing with a fundamentally different terrorism than it was twenty or thirty years ago. "Modernized" terrorism requires a comprehensive study that allows us to understand the direction of transformation of modern international terrorism and develop adequate social technologies for countering it.

In Russia, these objective prerequisites for the reproduction and transformation of terrorism into a more effective form are compounded by a number of additional circumstances. In the 90s of the XX century, strict control over extremist and criminal activities in Russia was largely lifted. Moreover, in order to bring the neoliberal transformation of Russian society to the "point of no return", the new power structures stimulated nihilistic views on the development of society, receiving significant social support from extremist and criminal circles. Although this task has been solved by now, it has proved extremely difficult to bring back the processes of separatism, radical polarization of society, the influence of meritocracy and oligarchy that have begun to take place within the framework of the law. We should also take into account the intense rivalry that Russia faces on the world stage, as well as the desire of certain political forces to prolong the difficulties experienced by our country.

As a result, we come to the conclusion that modern terrorism has an unprecedented social and technological potential in history, and countering it has become a structural factor in ensuring Russia's national security. This conclusion determines the relevance of the research topic.

The object of the study is the phenomenon of terrorism.

The subject of the study is modern terrorism as a qualitatively new threat to the national security of Russia.

The aim of the study is to comprehensively study the development of modern terrorism in the context of global trends and internal changes in Russian society, to identify objective prerequisites for its transformation and reproduction on the territory of the Russian Federation in order to develop practical recommendations for countering terrorism.

Achieving this goal involves solving the following tasks:

  • analysis of the essence and content of terrorism as a socio-political phenomenon;
  • identification of the conceptual basis of terrorism as an attributive characteristic of this phenomenon;
  • analysis of counter-terrorism measures.
1. Terrorism as a socio-psychological phenomenon Considering the concept of terrorism, it should be emphasized that there is a difference between its everyday and scientific understanding. Terrorism is not just about committing terrorist acts. This is a tactic (and even a strategy) of a group of individuals, which consists in the systematic, organized and ideologically justified use of terrorist attacks to achieve political goals. Terrorism is not just a tool for achieving political goals, but rather a purposeful policy of relying exclusively on terrorist methods and techniques, which, unfortunately, continue to be honed and improved and are becoming more widespread in international politics. A characteristic feature of terrorism is its focus on the general public. This is more than half a grim spectacle, played out with the help of the media in order to create a general atmosphere of crisis and uncertainty, undermine confidence in the ruling regime and provoke it to take harsh repressive measures that may affect the majority of the country's population. One of the main goals of terrorism is to detach the bulk of the population from those in power and, one might add, to demonstrate the incompetence of the authorities, their inability to control the situation. At the same time, the task of terrorism is not necessarily a change of political power. A terrorist group may also seek more limited goals, such as changes in the internal or foreign policy of the state, forcing a certain part of the population to take certain actions (for example, emigration) , etc. Often, the attacks are pursued internal goals of the group: the release of the arrested members, extraction of money raising, the introduction of secular law certain provisions of religion, the establishment of a regional platform to spread the "pure" faith, etc. The peculiarities of Islamic terrorism are primarily due to its religious justification. This is mainly reflected in the individual motivation of members of extremist groups, whose fanaticism, carefully developed and supported by the leadership of the group, allows them to undertake such risky and often suicidal actions that would hardly be decided by non-religiously motivated terrorists.
  1. Federal law dated 06.03.2006 No. 35-FZ (as amended on 08.11.2011) "On combating terrorism" [Electronic resource] // ATP ConsultantPlus
  2. Andreev M. V. International terrorism and international security of new quality / / Law and Law. – 2008. – No. 8. – pp. 7-9.
  3. Baranov V. P. Terrorism. History of development and modernity / / Materials of the Fourth International Scientific Conference on Security and Counteraction to Terrorism. Moscow State University named after M. V. Lomonosov. 30 –October 31, 2008 Volume 1. Proceedings of the plenary sessions. Materials of the First All-Russian scientific and practical conference "Formation of a stable anti-terrorist position of civil society as a basis for the prevention of terrorism". – Moscow: mtsnmo, 2009. – pp. 319-325.
  4. Berdnikova Yu. L., Bakin A. A., Malikova, T. Yu., Zhurkin A. G. Circles on the water or "unknown victims" // Psychology and psychopathology of terrorism. Humanitarian strategy of counter-terrorism. A collection of articles under the editorship of Professor M. M. Reshetnikov. St. Petersburg: East European Institute of Psychoanalysis, 2004. P. 167-176.
  5. Gusher A. I. Modern practice of international terrorism and its accounting in the work on ensuring the security of Russia and its citizens. – 2005. – № 25 (245). – p. 87
  6. Zhuravel V. P., Shevchenko V. G. On terrorism, terrorology and anti-terrorist activities (Encyclopedic dictionary). Moscow: Akademiya, 2007. – 312 p.
  7. Medvedev V. A. Terror as the basis of communicative culture of the XXI century: Emergency psychological assistance to victims of a terrorist act from understanding to interpretation / / Psychology and psychopathology of terrorism. Humanitarian strategy of counter-terrorism. A collection of articles under the editorship of Professor M. M. Reshetnikov. St. Petersburg: East European Institute of Psychoanalysis, 2004. P. 102-130.
  8. Orlov V. I. Modern terrorism. The role of political and ideological factors in the causes of its occurrence and preservation. Counteraction measures // Proceedings of the Fourth International Scientific Conference on Security and Counter-Terrorism. Moscow State University named after M. V. Lomonosov. 30 –October 31, 2008 Volume 1. Proceedings of the plenary sessions. Materials of the First All-Russian scientific and practical conference "Formation of a stable anti-terrorist position of civil society as a basis for the prevention of terrorism". – Moscow: mtsnmo, 2009. – Pp. 280-294.
  9. Petrishchev V. E. Notes on Terrorism, Moscow: Prospect, 2011. – p. 240
  10. Savchenkova N. M. Terror: a symbolic act or abstract aggression / / Psychology and psychopathology of terrorism. Humanitarian strategy of counter-terrorism. A collection of articles under the editorship of Professor M. M. Reshetnikov. – SPb.: The East European Institute Of Psychoanalysis, 2004. – P. 94-101
  11. Terrorism in the modern world / Scientific ed. Yu. M. Antonyan, V. L. Shultz; Russian Academy of Sciences, Center for Research. security problems, Societies.- Yes. council for combating International Terrorism. terrorism. Moscow: Nauka, 2008. 359 p.
  12. Yuryev A. I. Political psychology of terrorism / / Psychology and psychopathology of terrorism. Humanitarian strategy of counter-terrorism. A collection of articles under the editorship of Professor M. M. Reshetnikov. St. Petersburg: East European Institute of Psychoanalysis, 2004. pp. 64-87

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